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Canada History Q/A

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1. Q: In what year did Jacques Cartier make his first voyage to Canada? A: 1534.

2. Q: Who was the founder of Quebec City in 1608? A: Samuel de Champlain.

3. Q: Which European power ceded Canada to Britain after the Treaty of Paris in 1763? A: France.

4. Q: What event in 1867 led to the confederation of Canada, uniting several provinces into the Dominion of Canada? A: The British North America Act.

5. Q: Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada after confederation in 1867? A: Sir John A. Macdonald.

6. Q: In what year did Canada become a fully independent nation, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster? A: 1931.

7. Q: During which conflict did Canada gain international recognition for its military contributions, especially at Vimy Ridge? A: World War I.

8. Q: What was the purpose of the Canadian Pacific Railway, completed in 1885? A: To connect the east and west coasts of Canada and facilitate transportation.

9. Q: Which indigenous peoples played a crucial role in the fur trade in the early history of Canada? A: The Indigenous Peoples of the First Nations.

10. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Quebec in 1759 during the Seven Years’ War? A: It led to British control of Canada.

11. Q: In what year did Newfoundland and Labrador join Canada as the tenth province? A: 1949.

12. Q: What was the purpose of the Hudson’s Bay Company, founded in 1670? A: To trade in furs and other goods in North America.

13. Q: Which expedition led to the discovery of the Northwest Passage in 1903-1906? A: The expedition of Roald Amundsen.

14. Q: What major event marked the beginning of the Great Depression in Canada in 1929? A: The stock market crash.

15. Q: Who was the iconic Canadian explorer who mapped much of Canada’s northern regions in the early 20th century? A: Vilhjalmur Stefansson.

16. Q: What was the purpose of the Indian Act, enacted in 1876? A: It defined the legal status and rights of Indigenous peoples in Canada.

17. Q: Which Canadian province is known for the Klondike Gold Rush of the late 19th century? A: Yukon.

18. Q: In what year did Canada introduce its official flag, the Maple Leaf? A: 1965.

19. Q: What was the purpose of the Residential Schools in Canada, which operated from the 19th century to the 1990s? A: To assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture.

20. Q: Which province was the last to join the Canadian Confederation in 1949? A: Newfoundland and Labrador.

21. Q: What role did Canadian troops play in the Battle of Juno Beach during World War II? A: They were part of the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944.

22. Q: Which treaty signed in 1760 ceded New France to Britain and played a role in the shaping of Canada? A: The Treaty of Paris.

23. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Vimy Ridge during World War I? A: It marked a key victory for the Allied forces and is considered a defining moment for Canada.

24. Q: Who was Louis Riel, and what role did he play in Canadian history? A: Louis Riel was a Métis leader who played a key role in the Red River and Northwest Rebellions.

25. Q: Which Canadian province experienced the Klondike Gold Rush in the late 19th century? A: Yukon.

26. Q: What was the purpose of the War Measures Act, enacted during World War I and World War II? A: It gave the Canadian government broad powers during times of war or emergency.

27. Q: Which Canadian province is known for the historic Plains of Abraham battle between the French and British in 1759? A: Quebec.

28. Q: Who were the Fathers of Confederation, key figures in the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867? A: Leaders like John A. Macdonald, George Brown, and George-Étienne Cartier.

29. Q: What was the purpose of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, established in 1932? A: To regulate and promote Canadian radio broadcasting.

30. Q: In what year did Canada become a member of the United Nations? A: 1945.

31. Q: What was the significance of the Charlottetown Conference in 1864? A: It laid the groundwork for the confederation of Canada.

32. Q: Who was the first Indigenous person to be appointed as Governor General of Canada? A: Mary Simon, appointed in 2021.

33. Q: Which political party introduced the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982? A: The Liberal Party, led by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

34. Q: What was the purpose of the National Policy, introduced by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald in 1879? A: To promote economic growth through protective tariffs and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

35. Q: Which political party implemented the National Healthcare System in Canada in the 1960s? A: The New Democratic Party (NDP).

36. Q: What role did Canadian soldiers play in the Korean War (1950-1953)? A: Canada contributed troops to the United Nations forces.

37. Q: What was the purpose of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in relation to Indigenous lands? A: It aimed to regulate the expansion of British colonies and protect Indigenous territories.

38. Q: Who was the first woman elected to the House of Commons in Canada? A: Agnes Macphail, in 1921.

39. Q: What was the significance of the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919? A: It was a major strike by workers demanding better working conditions and wages.

40. Q: In what year did the St. Lawrence Seaway, a major shipping route, officially open? A: 1959.

41. Q: What was the purpose of the National Energy Program (NEP), introduced in 1980? A: To promote energy self-sufficiency and control oil prices.

42. Q: Who was the leader of the Métis during the Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870? A: Louis Riel.

43. Q: What event marked the beginning of the Great Depression in Canada in 1929? A: The stock market crash.

44. Q: Who was the first French explorer to reach Canada, claiming it for France in 1534? A: Jacques Cartier.

45. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759? A: It led to British control of Quebec and ultimately New France.

46. Q: In what year did Canada become a fully independent nation, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster? A: 1931.

47. Q: What was the purpose of the Hudson’s Bay Company, founded in 1670? A: To trade in furs and other goods in North America.

48. Q: Which indigenous peoples played a crucial role in the fur trade in the early history of Canada? A: The Indigenous Peoples of the First Nations.

49. Q: What was the purpose of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in relation to Indigenous lands? A: It aimed to regulate the expansion of British colonies and protect Indigenous territories.

50. Q: In what year did Newfoundland and Labrador join Canada as the tenth province? A: 1949.

51. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Ortona during World War II, where Canadian forces played a key role? A: It was a critical battle in the Italian Campaign, showcasing the bravery and effectiveness of Canadian troops.

52. Q: Who were the Famous Five, and what was their contribution to women’s rights in Canada? A: The Famous Five were activists who fought for women’s rights, including the right to be recognized as “persons” under the law; their efforts led to the Persons Case.

53. Q: Which Prime Minister implemented the policy of bilingualism and multiculturalism in the 1960s? A: Pierre Trudeau.

54. Q: What was the purpose of the Official Languages Act, enacted in 1969? A: To promote English and French as the official languages of Canada and ensure linguistic equality.

55. Q: Who was Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and what was his significance in Canadian history? A: Sir Wilfrid Laurier was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada and played a key role in national unity, economic development, and fostering a sense of Canadian identity.

56. Q: What was the purpose of the Canadian War Measures Act during times of war or emergency? A: It granted the government extraordinary powers, including the ability to suspend civil liberties, to address perceived threats to security.

57. Q: Who were the Acadians, and what happened during the Great Expulsion (1755-1764)? A: The Acadians were French colonists in Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia); the Great Expulsion was the forced deportation of Acadians by the British.

58. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Passchendaele during World War I, where Canadian troops played a role? A: It was a brutal battle in Belgium where Canadian forces displayed courage and tenacity but suffered heavy casualties.

59. Q: Who was Nellie McClung, and what role did she play in the women’s suffrage movement in Canada? A: Nellie McClung was a suffragist and one of the Famous Five; she advocated for women’s rights, including the right to vote.

60. Q: In what year did Canada become a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)? A: 1949.

61. Q: What was the purpose of the National Energy Program (NEP), introduced in 1980? A: The NEP aimed to reduce Canada’s dependence on foreign oil and promote energy self-sufficiency.

62. Q: Who was the first woman to be appointed as a federal cabinet minister in Canada? A: Ellen Fairclough, appointed in 1957.

63. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Dieppe during World War II, where Canadian forces were heavily involved? A: It was a failed raid by the Allies on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, resulting in significant casualties but providing valuable lessons for future amphibious operations.

64. Q: Who was the first Indigenous person to serve as Canada’s Governor General? A: Mary Simon, appointed in 2021.

65. Q: What role did Canadian soldiers play in the Battle of Hong Kong during World War II? A: Canadian troops were part of the defense of Hong Kong against the Japanese, and many were taken as prisoners of war.

66. Q: Who was the leader of the Métis during the Red River Resistance of 1869-1870? A: Louis Riel.

67. Q: What was the purpose of the War Measures Act, and when was it invoked during peacetime? A: The War Measures Act granted the government extraordinary powers during wartime; it was controversially invoked during the October Crisis in 1970.

68. Q: Who was the first Prime Minister to represent the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada? A: John Diefenbaker.

69. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Paardeberg during the Second Boer War, where Canadian troops were involved? A: Canadian soldiers played a role in this battle, marking one of the first times Canadian troops fought overseas.

70. Q: Who was the first woman to be elected as a Member of Parliament (MP) in Canada? A: Agnes Macphail, elected in 1921.

71. Q: What was the purpose of the Statute of Westminster, passed in 1931? A: The Statute of Westminster granted Canada legislative independence from the United Kingdom.

72. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Ypres during World War I, where Canadian soldiers faced chlorine gas attacks for the first time? A: It was a pivotal battle where Canadian forces faced and resisted the first large-scale use of chemical weapons.

73. Q: Who was the Canadian physician who co-discovered insulin in 1921, revolutionizing the treatment of diabetes? A: Sir Frederick Banting.

74. Q: What was the purpose of the Regina Manifesto, adopted by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in 1933? A: The Regina Manifesto outlined the political and economic vision of the CCF, emphasizing socialism and social justice.

75. Q: What was the significance of the 1837-1838 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada? A: The rebellions sought democratic reforms and responsible government, ultimately contributing to the establishment of responsible government in Canada.

76. Q: Who was the leader of the Union of the Canadas (1841-1867), which unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada? A: Sir Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine.

77. Q: What was the purpose of the Head Tax imposed on Chinese immigrants in Canada in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? A: The Head Tax was a discriminatory measure aimed at limiting Chinese immigration to Canada.

78. Q: Who was the first woman to serve as Canada’s Prime Minister? A: Kim Campbell, who served from June to November 1993.

79. Q: What was the significance of the Meech Lake Accord, proposed in 1987, and why did it ultimately fail? A: The Meech Lake Accord sought constitutional changes; it failed due to a lack of ratification by all provinces.

80. Q: What was the purpose of the Canadian Arctic Expedition (1913-1918), led by Vilhjalmur Stefansson? A: The expedition aimed to study the Arctic environment, fauna, and Indigenous cultures.

81. Q: Who was the first Black Canadian elected to the House of Commons? A: Lincoln Alexander, elected in 1968.

82. Q: What was the significance of the Quiet Revolution in Quebec during the 1960s? A: The Quiet Revolution marked a period of social and cultural change in Quebec, including secularization and modernization.

83. Q: Who were the United Empire Loyalists, and what role did they play in Canadian history? A: The United Empire Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolution; their migration to Canada had a lasting impact.

84. Q: What was the purpose of the Indian Act, and when was it enacted in Canada? A: The Indian Act, enacted in 1876, outlined government policies and regulations concerning Indigenous peoples, affecting their rights, reserves, and governance.

85. Q: Who was the Canadian aviator and bush pilot known as “Queen of the North,” who contributed to northern exploration and air services? A: Eileen Vollick.

86. Q: What was the significance of the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919, and how did it impact labor rights in Canada? A: The Winnipeg General Strike was a major labor strike that influenced the development of labor rights and union movements in Canada.

87. Q: Who was Sir George-Étienne Cartier, and what role did he play in Canadian Confederation? A: Sir George-Étienne Cartier was a Father of Confederation who played a key role in the negotiations leading to the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867.

88. Q: What was the purpose of the Riel Rebellions in 1870 and 1885, and who led the Métis resistance? A: The Riel Rebellions were led by Louis Riel, seeking Métis rights and recognition in the face of federal government policies.

89. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Quebec in 1775 during the American Revolutionary War? A: The Battle of Quebec marked a pivotal moment where British forces defended against an American invasion, preserving Canada as a British colony.

90. Q: Who were the “Black Donnellys,” and what infamous event marked their history in Canada during the 19th century? A: The Black Donnellys were an Irish family involved in a notorious feud in Biddulph Township, Ontario, resulting in a tragic massacre in 1880.

91. Q: What was the purpose of the First Nations Land Management Act, passed in 1999? A: The Act allowed First Nations in Canada to opt-out of the Indian Act and gain more control over their land management.

92. Q: Who was the Canadian journalist and feminist who played a crucial role in the Persons Case, leading to women being recognized as “persons” under the law? A: Emily Murphy.

93. Q: What was the purpose of the Avro Arrow project, and why was it controversial? A: The Avro Arrow was a supersonic jet interceptor project that was canceled in 1959, leading to debates about its cost and technological significance.

94. Q: Who was the Canadian nurse known as “Lady with the Lamp” during the Crimean War, providing care to wounded soldiers? A: Florence Nightingale.

95. Q: What was the significance of the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, and what agreements were made during the discussions? A: The Charlottetown Conference laid the foundation for Canadian Confederation, with discussions on the creation of a federal union.

96. Q: Who was the Canadian poet and soldier known for his war poetry during World War I? A: John McCrae.

97. Q: What was the purpose of the National Policy, introduced by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald in 1879? A: The National Policy aimed to promote economic growth through protective tariffs and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

98. Q: Who were the “Group of Seven,” and what was their contribution to Canadian art in the early 20th century? A: The Group of Seven were Canadian artists known for their landscape paintings, capturing the unique beauty of the Canadian wilderness.

99. Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Lundy’s Lane during the War of 1812, where British and Canadian forces faced American troops? A: The Battle of Lundy’s Lane was a pivotal engagement in the War of 1812, showcasing the resilience of British and Canadian forces.

100. Q: Who was the Canadian suffragist and politician who played a key role in the women’s suffrage movement and was the first woman elected to the Senate? A: Cairine Wilson.